Athletes are fine-tuned machines with each part of their biomechanical systems working in harmony for optimal function. Even a minor breakdown in just one part of the body could mean the difference between participation and being side-lined, victory or defeat. Chiropractic is not only beneficial to the experienced and professional athlete, but is beneficial to the amateur and weekend warrior athlete as well. Athletes of all types utilize chiropractic because it is a drug-free way to better health and performance. The chiropractor’s role in helping the athlete is to enhance performance, prevent and manage injury. Chiropractic adjustments help ensure that the body functions as efficiently as possible, which can maximize healing and recovery from all types of injuries. Chiropractic helps athletes perform better by removing the interference on the nervous system, which controls every aspect of every function in the human body. You can see, hear, breathe and move your body parts all because of the nervous system. When the nervous system is free of interference, the body can function at its maximum ability on all levels, thus allowing the athlete to perform at an optimum level. Champions in virtually every major sport are regular chiropractic patients.
“I would estimate that in excess of 90% of all world-class athletes use chiropractic care to prevent injuries and to increase their performance potential.”1 – Sean Atkins, PhD Exercise Physiologist
“It’s functional health care, not just crisis management. If you align the skeletal system well, the articulation of the joint appears to perform more properly; the muscles appear more flexible, strong and free of scar tissues and restrictions. These improved findings help athletes perform any sport at a higher level. When the body is well taken care of, the skill level appears to be enhanced.”2 – Dr. Martin Camara, DC for the South East Asian Games
Famous Athletes who use Chiropractic Care
Increasing numbers of professional, Olympic, and other elite amateur athletes have come to experience the benefits of chiropractic care, either privately or through a team chiropractor. Some do so to treat injuries, some to treat minor functional or structural problems to avoid possible future injury. Some teams do not have a team chiropractor and the players fly their own chiropractors to the games with them.
Here is a partial list of athletes whose names you will probably recognize who have benefited from chiropractic. They are listed in alphabetical order by sport:
- Mindy Mylrea, “We put a great deal of stress on our bodies, so chiropractic is very helpful.”
- National and World Champion, star of 12 instructional exercise videos and a top rated teacher training program, motivational speaker.
- Bernard Horn, “My chiropractor is really phenomenal. He’s shown me how to use my body to its greatest advantage. I’ve gotten stronger and greatly increased my flexibility.”
- Men’s champion
- Mindy Mylrea, “We put a great deal of stress on our bodies, so chiropractic is very helpful.”
- Barry Bonds, “When you’re out there and you’re not feeling the pain, you’re obviously going to be a better player.”
- Wade Boggs, “Last year I found a chiropractor and I have been seeing him ever since. I have been pain-free and feeling terrific. I swear by it.”
- Jose Canseco, “I’ve found that it’s a great stress reliever to get adjusted. It takes away a lot of the tightness in the muscles.”
- Brett Butler, Roberto Clemente, Kirt Manwarning, Greg Mathews, Mark McGuire, Rick Monday, Wes Parker, Mark Portugal, Chris Sabo, Ryan Sanberg, John Smoltz, Don Sutton, Arizona Diamondbacks Team and more
- Dan Schayes, “I use chiropractic as my main source of healthcare.”
- John Stockton, Doug Smith, a sports reporter for the Toronto Star, recently noted in his column that Stockton, 40, the oldest player in the NBA, believes the greatest reason he’s still able to complete is the care he receives from the team chiropractor, “It’s been great for me and for my family,” he told the Toronto Star.
- Utah Jazz team, The Jazz are the oldest team in the NBA and yet are also the most injury-free. Why? The Jazz claims their chiropractor is most important reason the team remains the most “injury-free” team in the league.
- Charles Barkley, Jeff Hornacek, Michael Jordan, Karl Malone, Robert Parrish, Scottie Pippin and more
- Bodybuilding and Weightlifting
- Dr. Frank Columbo (Mr. Olympia, Mr. Universe, Mr. World, Mr. International, Mr. Europe, Mr. Italy), Clifta Coulter (Miss USA), John Defrendis (Mr. USA), Lee Haney (Mr. Olympia 1984-1991), Tonya Knight (Professional Bodybuilder) and more
- Arnold Schwarzenegger, “Bodybuilders and fitness people have been using chiropractic very extensively in order to stay healthy and fit. I found it was better to go to a chiropractor before you get injured. We are a perfect team – the world of fitness and the world of chiropractors. I am very fortunate to have, so-to-speak, my in-house chiropractor, Dr. Franco Colombo, as my own personal chiropractor. So, I visit Franco regularly, and he comes over to my house. He adjusts my wife, my kids, me, everybody gets an adjustment. And we feel always great when Franco leaves. Even when I have athletic injuries he’s always there for me, and helps me. So it’s really terrific, and I know that first hand. That’s why I always will be traveling around, all over the world, talking highly about the profession of chiropractic. You chiropractic doctors are really miracle workers.”
- Muhammad Ali, Michael Carbojol, Jack Dempsey, Tony Lopez and Rocky Marciano (Heavyweight Champion 1956)
- Evander Holyfield, “I do believe in chiropractic. I found that going to my chiropractor three times a week helps my performance. Once I drove 20 miles to see a chiropractor before a fight. I have to have my adjustments before I go into the ring. The majority of boxers go to get the edge.”
- Greg Lemond (3-time winner of the Tour de France) and Davis Phinney (The first American ever to win a stage in the Tour de France, 2-time stage winner, 1991 US Pro Champion, 1984 Olympic Bronze Medalist in the 100k Team Time Trial)
- Lance Armstrong, Lance has said that he would not have won the 2000 Tour de France without his chiropractor.
- Greg Louganis
- Duathlon (Run, Bike, Run)
- Kenny Sousa (8-time US Duathlon Champion), Joel Thompson, Brent Steiner and Fred Klaven
- Lester Archambeau, Ricky Bell, Ronnie Bradford, Bob Christian, Gary Clark, Roger Craig, Keith Crawford, Tim Dwight, Greg Ellis, Dan Marino, Atlanta Falcons Team, Dallas Cowboys Team, Denver Broncos Team, Detroit Lions Team, San Francisco 49ers Team, and more
- Chris Carter, “Chiropractic has really helped me to keep my body in line to help my body recover.”
- Emmitt Smith, “I started doing this about four or five years ago. I believe that what I’m doing is what helps me go on. I think Warren Moon does the same thing. So I’ve become a big believer in servicing my body and making sure it is lined up properly and functioning the way it is supposed to on Sunday. I go see my chiropractor when I get bent out of shape on Sundays. Playing in a football game is like being in 30-40 car accidents.”
- Joe Montana, “I’ve been seeing a chiropractor and he’s really been helping me out a lot. Chiropractic’s been a big part of my game. Chiropractic care works for me. I only wish I had tried chiropractic a few years ago when I first started having back pain and maybe the surgery would have never happened.”
- Lynn Adams, Amy Alcott, Kim Baur, Lynn Connelly, Beth Daniel, Sally Little, Sandra Palmer, Patti Rizzo, Patty Sheehan, Jan Stephenson, Donna White and more
- Barbara Bunkowsky, “I have found that chiropractic keeps me flexible and pain-free so that I can perform at my highest level. The benefits of chiropractic have improved my golf swing, putting less stress and strain on my body and allowing me to be a more productive golfer. I believe it also helps prevent other associated injuries that are very common on the LPGA tour.”
- Fred Funk, “I do believe chiropractic has really benefited my game. Over the last 3 years, I feel I have become more exposed to, and knowledgeable about, the benefits of chiropractic for me and my game. I realize how your body can get out of balance, and chiropractic care helps…”
- Tiger Woods, “I’ve been going to chiropractors for as long as I can remember. It’s as important to my training as practicing my swing.”
- Mary Lou Retton, Olga Korbut and more
- Wayne Gretzky, Brett Hall, Detroit Redwings team and more
- Jorge Angat, Jr., “The split second that can be added to my speed by my chiropractor could be crucial.” Jorge’s manager, “Chiropractic care gives him that little advantage, that little extra strength and quickness and allows him his best opportunity to regain his title.”
- Elisabeth Manley (Olympic Silver Medalist, figure skating)
- Derek Parra, “I’ve always been a proponent of chiropractic care. I’ve used a lot of other treatments for injuries and pain, but the problem doesn’t get fixed until I go to a doctor of chiropractic.”
- Nancy Ditz and Joan Benoit
- US Women’s Soccer Team
- Gregg Glasingame (Atlanta Attack Professional Soccer Team), “I was hit into the boards really hard one day and had tremendous back pain. I went to a chiropractor because nothing else was working, and there I found immediate relief.”
- Brian Haynes (Atlanta Attack Professional Soccer Team), “Chiropractic helps to prevent injuries and speeds up the recovery time when you are injured.”
- USWorld Cup Team, “As the season progressed, virtually every player (had) been adjusted. Some enjoy it for its preventative approach, and others appreciated the relief it provides them when they have been injured.” –Dr. George Billauer, Team Chiropractor for the 1994 World Cup Team
- Jeff Booth
- Mark Kechele, “I’m definitely going to make chiropractic part of my training program.”
- Ritchie Rudolph, “I surfed better than I have in a long time. With jut those couple of adjustments, I was noticeably more flexible and had an incredible burst of energy.”
- Carolyn Waldo
- Tracy Austin, Jimmy Connors, Billy Jean King, John McEnroe, Patrick Rafter, Martina Navratilova and more
- Ivan Lendl, “I try to go twice a week to a chiropractor, sometimes even more during big tournaments. I feel I am much more tuned-up with an adjustment. I support chiropractic very much. I think it is great for sports, I think it is great for anyone.”
- Track and Field
- Willie Banks (Triple Jump), Tatiana Gregoriova (Pole Vault), Bruce Jenner (Decathalon), Jackie Joyner-Kersee (Pentathlon), Alberto Juantorena (400 and 800 Meter), Mary Beth Larsen (Pentathlon), Carl Lewis (100 and 200 Meter), Edwin Moses (Hurdles), Marla Runyan (5000 Meter American record holder), Mary Decker Slaney (American record holder at 7 distances), Dwight Stones (Hi-jump) and Mac Wilkins (Discus)
- Donovan Baily (Canada, 100 Meter), Donovan publicly thanked his chiropractor for helping him perform at his best.
- Joe Greene, “I know chiropractic helped me, it helped my performance and I feel better.”
- Dan O’Brien, “You obviously can’t compete at your fullest if you’re not in alignment. And your body can’t heal if your back is not in alignment. It was the holistic idea that I like about chiropractic and that is what track and field is about. Every track and field athlete that I have ever met has seen a chiropractor at one time or another. In track and field, it is absolutely essential. I think I compete eight to ten percent better from regular chiropractic use. I think that is how much of a benefit it is, if not more!”
- Dave Scott (6-time winner of Hawaiian Ironman Ultradistance World Championship), Mark Allen (also a 6-time winner of Hawaiian Ironman Ultradistance Championship) and Larry Rhoads (USA Triathlon 1991 Triathlete of the Year)
- Natalie Cook (Beach volleyball, Sydney 2000 gold medalist), Tim Hovland, Craig Moothart, Mary Jo Peppler, Sinjin Smith, Kent Steffes, Randy Stoklos and more
“Chiropractic is essential for running. If I could put a percentage value on it, I would say that I compete 8-10% better from regular chiropractic care.”1 – Dan O’Brien, Olympic Decathlete
The 23rd South East Asian (SEA) Games, held November 27-December 3, 2005 in the Philippines, produced an abundance of medals for the host country’s swimmers and divers. The swimming team captured four gold medals. The diving team won five gold medals. This was a marked improvement in comparison to the last SEA games in which the swim team only brought home two gold medals and the diving team didn’t capture any medals. What made the difference for these two teams? They attributed their improved performance to intensive training, the hard work of the athletes and coaches and a team of chiropractors and medical specialists who kept the athletes in top shape before and during the competition. There team was comprised of two chiropractors, seven physical and massage therapists combined, two Graston Technique (soft tissue technique) specialists and a care coordinator. This team thoroughly evaluated each athlete prior to the competition for perceived muscle imbalances, suspected restrictions in their joints and special needs such as chronic injuries that had not been addressed previously. All the athletes had a tailored treatment program to suit their individual needs in hopes of helping them enhance their overall performance. In addition to the teams’ overall success, seven out of the nine divers captured individual gold medals, many of them for the first time.2
What is Chiropractic?
Chiropractic is the science of locating areas of spinal joint dysfunction, the art of correcting them and the philosophy of helping your body heal naturally. Your body, especially your spine, is subject to numerous traumas throughout the day. The way you sit, stand, sleep or exercise all affect your spine. Lifting wrong, working too much and STRESS all have impacts on your spine, known as micro-traumas. Car accidents, sports injuries or bad falls place macro-traumas on your spine. The Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) states that by the age 13, you have already experienced over 1000 traumas to your spine. That’s a lot. Think about it though, do you have any siblings? Did you ever wrestle/fight with them? If so, how many times per week for how many years? Did anyone ever end up in tears? What about sports? Were you involved in any sports growing up? How often did you practice? How many years did you play? What about recreational activities like skiing, snowboarding, waterskiing, atving, etc.? What about any car accidents? Are you starting to get the picture? It’s easy to go back through your past and find at least 1000 traumas that have occurred. Now, you probably don’t remember ever being hurt that often growing up. Part of the reason you could do the things in your past without experiencing any pain is because of how active you were then. Kids have a ready supply of endorphins, your body’s natural pain killer, running through their systems. As we start to get older & become less active, join the workforce, we don’t have as many endorphins running through our bodies, which allows us to experience pain more frequently. Ask any adult if they did what they used to do as a kid do they think it would hurt, their answer will be yes. All of these traumas result in vertebrae (the bones of your spine) losing their normal position or motion (known as a subluxation/misalignment). This puts pressure on your nervous system, which interferes with how your nervous system communicates to your entire body. When your brain is unable to communicate with the rest of your body the way that is needed, your body doesn’t function or work the way that its meant to, thus leading to a decrease in overall performance and an increase in your susceptibility to becoming injured or ill.
How Does Chiropractic Work?
All health problems can be physical, chemical or emotional in nature. Most people understand how emotional stress can contribute or cause certain types of health problems. Everyone knows when the chemistry of the body is not normal, you can develop health problems; however, the majority of people do not understand how and why health problems can come about from physical stress.
An example of how a problem can come about from something physical would be having a pebble in your shoe. You would feel pain from the pebble. The pain would not be from something chemical or emotional. If you were in pain long enough this could lead to emotional stress and could perhaps even throw off your chemistry in the area, but the cause of the problem would actually be something physical. The reason a person feels pain when there is a pebble in the shoe is because the pebble puts pressure on a nerve of pain. If there was no nerve of pain in your foot, you would not feel the pebble.
A common cause of pain that people suffer with is, in fact, pressure on a local nerve. It has been suggested that only 10% of the nerves in the body are related to pain. The remaining 90% of the nerves in the body control your function. For example, you can see if the nerves of sight are functioning properly; you can hear only because the nerves of hearing are functioning properly. You can move your legs because the nerves that control the muscles in your legs are functioning and you can breathe and digest if the nerves related to these areas are functioning properly. Put pressure on nerves of function and you feel no pain, you simply don’t function properly.
When you remove a pebble from your shoe, pain disappears because pressure or irritation to the nerve has been physically removed. If there is pressure on nerves in the neck causing head or neck pain, when that pressure is relieved these problems will clear up. If there is pressure on a nerve inhibiting normal function, when that pressure is removed, normal function is once again restored.
This explains why some people have gone to a chiropractor for back pain and then recovered from a different problem altogether. As they were treated to remove pressure from the nerves that were giving them pain, their digestive or breathing problems improved as well.
Athletic training can often jar and misalign the spinal column and all other joints in the body. Impact to the legs, feet, head, shoulders and torso often radiates to the spine. This leads to subluxations, which interferes with the nervous system. Nerve irritation can disrupt cardiovascular and respiratory function (athletes have less wind, greater fatigue), muscle contraction (less strength, lethargy) and body chemistry (CO2, VO2 and lactic acid levels all sub par). Doctors of Chiropractic detect and correct vertebral subluxations by physically adjusting the spine. This restores the spine and nervous system to a more optimal level of function, which maximizes the body’s performance and healing potential. Anyone who engages in athletics can benefit from regular chiropractic checkups to ensure that their spine is balanced and free from structural stress and subluxations. When the spinal column is brought into balance and alignment, the body’s nervous system and biomechanics (posture) are maximized.
“Postural strength and coordination are essential for injury prevention and sports performance.”3 –Thomas Harris,MD The Sports Medicine Guide
“Posture affects and moderates every physiological function, from breathing to nervous system function, and despite the considerable evidence that posture affects physiology and function, the significant influence of posture on health is not addressed by most physicians.”4 – American Journal of Pain Management
In an average year, 25 million people visit a doctor for injuries that they suffer as a result of athletics. In professional sports, injury is the number one reason for early retirement. Overall, 67 billion dollars is spent each year for the treatment of athletic injuries.5 – U.S. News & World Report
“The quality of healing is directly proportional to the functional capability of the nervous system to send and receive nerve messages.”6 – Journal of Neurological Science
Benefits of chiropractic include but are not limited to:
- Range of motion
- Muscular strength and power
- Reaction time and speed
- Balance and coordination
- Spirometry/lung capacity
- Energy Levels
- Beta-endorphin levels
- Blood pressure levels and regulation
- Papillary cycle time
- Kinesthetic perception
- Athletic performance
- Recovery time from injuries
- Health of discs in the spine
- Overall spinal health and structure
- Wear and tear on all joints in the body
- Pain, often instant relief
- Many other health problems
- Decrease in health care costs
- Corrects the CAUSE of the problem rather than treating the symptoms
- Natural and painless
“If two athletes competing against each other were ranked equally, and each athlete was of the exact same skill, ability and fitness level, and both had the identical desire to win, who would come out on top at the final blow of the whistle? In the opinion of many exercise physiologists and top medical researches, as well as some of the world’s top professional athletes, the competitor that is under regular chiropractic care would have the athletic edge every time.”7 – J. Zimmerman, DC
“Chiropractic, as part of the health care team, provides a form of care that benefits everyone…regular chiropractic adjustments are essential for the correction of vertebral misalignments, which causes neurological dysfunction and decreased performance, even in the absence of symptoms.”7 – Chiropractic Association ofIreland
“Chiropractic has helped thousands of athletes, professional and amateur, overcome an injury without resorting to surgery.”8 – Sports Medicine
A Canadian research team included Chiropractic care in the rehabilitation program of sixteen injured female long distance runners. Not only did these runners recover quickly, seven of them actually scored “personal best” performances while under chiropractic care.9
The extent of chiropractic’s “winning edge” was tested on fifty athletes who were divided into a control group and a group that added chiropractic care to their usual training procedures. After six weeks, the group under chiropractic care scored significantly better on standard tests of athletic ability. When tested on their reaction time, the control group demonstrated less than one percent improvement while the chiropractic group achieved reaction times more than eighteen percent faster than their initial scores.10
A landmark research effort from the New Zealand School of Chiropractic and the Universityof Auckland, has evaluated the effects chiropractic adjustments may have on reaction times. Two groups were tested to study variations in reaction times; one group received spinal adjustments, while the other group, only receiving a short period of rest, acted as a control group for comparison. There was a marked improvement for the group that received an adjustment over the group that had nothing but rest. The group that got only a rest period did show an average decrease in reaction time: 58 milliseconds, an 8% faster reaction time. The group that received chiropractic adjustments showed a decrease in reaction time of 97 milliseconds, representing a 14.8% faster reaction time.11
The implications for these findings are far reaching for any activity in the “game of life,” and the data can objectively support anecdotal evidence of enhanced athletic performance under chiropractic care. The ability to react more quickly to any of the demands life can impose provides added performance enhancement benefits for athletes, who rely on optimum reaction reflexes to perform at their maximum competitive capacity. Field based practice experiences indicate that chiropractic care appears to both enhance an athlete’s ability to perform and to recover from injuries when they occur; this study provides objective evidence that a vital component of athletic performance – rapid reaction time – is markedly improved through the chiropractic adjustment.
It is estimated that 30 million children now participate in organized sports including soccer, football, swimming, gymnastics, hockey, skating and baseball. Correspondingly, as participation increases, injuries increase. Sports injuries to young people now exceed the occurrence of infectious disease.12
From the American Family Physician, the increase in emergency-related injuries for children includes well-known injuries such as broken arms and twisted ankles-these injuries are certainly not new. What is new; however, are the types of children’s sports injuries seldom seen in past generations. They are overuse injuries caused by small but repetitive injuries to the body’s tissues, joints and spinal column resulting in chronic health conditions. Chiropractic adjustments for children of all ages are of tremendous benefit for the treatment and prevention of injuries and to maximize performance potential. Chiropractic’s focus on the spine and nervous system is also important for children since it is their nervous system that controls their entire growth and development.
The Journal of Chiropractic Research published an article on sports performance and the effects of chiropractic care. The study consisted of two groups of athletes; one group received weekly adjustments while the other group received no chiropractic care. Every six weeks the athletes were tested in agility, kinesthetic perception, power and reaction time. The group that received chiropractic care after six weeks had improved in all categories by 10.57% in comparison to the non-chiropractic care group. After twelve weeks, the chiropractic care group had improved by 16.7% in comparison to the non-chiropractic group.13
In another study, athletes under a fourteen-week trial period of chiropractic care showed significant improvements in muscle strength, long jump distance and capillary blood counts.14
In a research study featured by the American Chiropractic Association, chiropractic care and athletic performance measured pulmonary function in athletes receiving chiropractic adjustments. The athlete’s lung volume capacities increased by 6% following only two weeks of care. For endurance athletes, being able to increase lung volume is significant. The ability to breathe stronger and deeper for longer periods of time, increasing the capabilities of sending oxygen to the muscles, increases the body’s endurance.15
Researchers selected children suffering from low back pain. Nearly 50% of the pain was due to trauma, such as sports-related injuries. They were diagnosed with subluxations, and when treated, 90% of the children reported significant improvement.16 – Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
In closing, triathletes, athletes in general, adults and kids can all benefit from chiropractic care. When you’re looking for a chiropractor to aid you in achieving your peak performance, you should look for a doctor who specializes in sports medicine. There are two very recognized credentials that require a lot of extra hours of schooling that chiropractors can obtain once they’ve received their doctorate degree. The first is known as a DACBSP (Diplomate of the American Chiropractic Board of Sports Physicians). This is the highest credential a chiropractor can achieve in sports medicine. In order to become a DACBSP, the doctor must have first achieved their CCSP (Certified Chiropractic Sports Physician, which is the other credential that is available to chiropractors to further their schooling in sports medicine). The CCSP certification requires the doctor to attend a minimum of 100 hours of 120 hour postgraduate program. This instruction is specific to physical fitness and the evaluation and treatment of injuries encountered in sports. Following the completion of these hours, the doctor must then take and successfully pass a comprehensive written examination. Once the CCSP has been obtained, the doctor can work towards completing the DACBSP. To do so, the doctor must attend another minimum of 200 class hours. Doctors wishing to achieve DACBSP status have four components they must successfully complete within three years of completion of the DACBSP program. The four components are: 1. DACBSP written examination, 2. DACBSP practical examination, 3. DACBSP practical experience requirement, and 4. DACBSP written project requirement (www.acbsp.com).17 This training will aid the doctor in the prevention and treatment of athletic injuries by enhancing their diagnostic skills and patient care.
- Wassung, K. The Winning Edge: Athletic Performance & Chiropractic.
- http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3987/is_200603/ai_n16117200/print Dynamic Chiropractic, Mar 12, 2006.
- Harris, T. The Sports Medicine Guide.
- Lennon, J. (1994, Jan.) American Journal of Pain Management.
- U.S. News & World Report, (1989, July 31).
- Edwards, J. PhD (1994, Aug) “Nerve dysfunction & tissue healing,” Journal of Neurological Science, p. 146.
- Zimmerman, J. Chiropractic Care & Athletic Performance. www.healthfirstdc.com/chiropractic_care_and_athletic_p.htm
- Edelson, E. Sports Medicine, p. 68.
- Grimton SK, Engsberg JR, Shaw L & Vetanze NW, (1990) “Muscular rehabilitation prescribed in coordination with prior chiropractic therapy as a treatment for sacroiliac subluxations in female distance runners,” Chiropractic Sports Medicine, pp. 2-8.
- Lauro, A. & Mouch B., (1991) “Chiropractic effects of athletic ability,” The Journal of Chiropractic Research & Clinical Investigation, pp. 84-87.
- Kelly DD, Murphy BA, Backhouse DP, Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, May 2000;23(4):246-51. Use of a mental rotation reaction time to measure the effects of upper-cervical adjustments on reaction time.
- Christensen,K.DC, (1997, May/June), “Sports related back injuries in young athletes,” The American Chiropractor.
- Lauro A., Mouch B., Chiropractic effects on athletic ability. Journal of Chiropractic Research. 1991;6:84-87.
- Journal of Vertebral Subluxation Research. 1997;1(4):33-37.
- ACA Journal. 1986;20(9):65-67.
- Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics. 2003;26(1):1-8.
- American Chiropractic Board of Sports Physicians, www.acbsp.com